Create a simple blog dApp on Solana

Learn how to create a simple blog dApp on Solana using Rust and React
Solana
IntermediateReactRust1.5 hours
Written by Kiran Bhalerao

Introduction

In this tutorial, we will learn how to create a simple blog post dapp on Solana blockchain. while building this dapp we will learn how to write the Solana rust program, Test the program and finally integrate the program with React frontend.
Final Dapp

Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes that you have,
  • Basic understanding of React.js
  • Basic understanding of Rust
  • completed Solana 101 Pathway

Requirements

This tutorial covers how to build a dapp on the Solana, but does not go through the installation of individual dependencies(as it assumes you already completed the Solana 101 Pathway on Figment learn).
  • Anchor Framework - Anchor is a framework used for Solana dapp development, It provides DSL to interact with the Solana program. If you are familiar with developing in Solidity, Truffle or Hardhat then consider the DSL is equivalent to ABI. Follow the guide to install Anchor along with Rust and Solana cli.
  • React.js - To interact with our Solana program we will create client-side app with React.js.
  • Phantom Wallet - Phantom is a digital wallet that lets you connect your crypto account to any dapp that build on the Solana blockchain. We will use Phantom wallet to connect to our Blog Dapp.
  • Vs code - I will recommend using vscode with rust analyzer extension as it has a great support for Rust language.

Solana Programming model

Program - Solana is a fast and low-cost blockchain, to achieve speed and low-cost Solana has slight different programming model. Solana uses Rust programing language to create programs as, you notice we keep saying Solana program instead of Solana smart contract from choosing programing language to naming concepts Solana is different, in Solana world smart contracts are known as Solana Programs.
Account - Solana programs are stateless so, if you want to store state, you need to use an account for it and accounts are fixed in size. Once the account is initialized with the size, you cannot change the size later So we have to design our application by keeping this in mind.
Rent - on Solana, you need to pay rent regularly to store data on the blockchain according to the space the data requires, The account can be made rent exempt (means you won't have to pay rent) if its balance is higher than some threshold that depends on the space it is consuming.

Application design decision

As we have learned, we need an account to create our blog dapp that has a fixed size so, if we create a single account with X size and start pushing posts inside that account, eventually the account will exceeds its size limit and we won't be able to create new posts. If you know Solidity, in Solidity we create a dynamic array and push as many items to it as we want, but in Solana our accounts will be fixed in size so we have to find a solution to this problem.
  • Solution one - What if we create an extremely large size account like in gigabytes? on Solana we need to pay rent of an account according to its size so, if our account grows in size the account rent will grow along with it.
  • Solution two - What if we create multiple accounts and connect them somehow? Yes, Thats the plan. we will create a new account for every single post and create a chain of posts linked one after another.
Linked šŸ¤” yeah, you guessed it right. We will use LinkedList to connect all the posts.

Setting up Local development

Before we start with actual development. We learn some Solana CLI commands docs:
To see your current Solana configuration use (I assume you have followed Solana 101 Pathway and you have all the CLI installation done):
solana config get Config File: /Users/user/.config/Solana/cli/config.yml RPC URL: https://api.devnet.Solana.com WebSocket URL: wss://api.devnet.Solana.com/ (computed) Keypair Path: /home/user/.config/Solana/id.json Commitment: confirmed
Your output might have different file paths. You can check the current wallet address by:
solana address
You can check the balance of your wallet:
solana balance
Or, you can airdrop tokens to your account:
solana airdrop 1 <your-account-address>
Check balance again. Now you should have a balance of 1 SOL in your wallet.
Now its time to scaffold our blog app with the help of Anchor CLI:
anchor init blog cd blog
The anchor init command creates the following directories:
ā”œā”€ā”€ app ā”œā”€ā”€ programs | ā””ā”€ā”€ blog | ā””ā”€ā”€ src | ā””ā”€ā”€ lib.rs ā”œā”€ā”€ test
Before writing program code update Anchor.toml
wallet = "your Keypair Path from the output of solana config get"

Creating the blog program

Now we are ready to start with the Solana rust program. Open up the lib.rs file located inside /program/blog/src/ folder.
use anchor_lang::prelude::*; declare_id!("Fg6PaFpoGXkYsidMpWTK6W2BeZ7FEfcYkg476zPFsLnS"); #[program] pub mod blog { use super::*; pub fn initialize(ctx: Context<Initialize>) -> ProgramResult { Ok(()) } } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct Initialize {}
This is the basic example of an anchor Solana program. There is only one function initialize, which will be invoked by the client. The initialize function has one argument of type context of Initialize struct.
Another noticeable thing is declare_id!, which is a macro that defines the program address and is used in internal validation. We don't have to think about it too much. This will be handled by the Anchor CLI.
Now its time to start declaring states of our blog app.
// pseudo code blog { current_post_key // latest post id so we can traverse back to other posts authority // who owns the account } user { name // store user name avatar // user avatar authority // owner } post { title // post title content // post descriptive content user // user id pre_post_key // to create LinkedList authority // owner }
As you have seen in the first basic example, we need to create functions that will define tasks that we want to perform on a program like, init_blog, signup_user, create_post, etc.
we will start with creating our very first function init_blog.
pub fn init_blog(ctx: Context<InitBlog>) -> ProgramResult { Ok(()) } // define ctx type #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct InitBlog<'info> { #[account(init, payer = authority, space = 8 + 32 + 32)] pub blog_account: Account<'info, BlogState>, #[account(init, payer = authority, space = 8 + 32 + 32 + 32 + 32 + 8)] pub genesis_post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, pub system_program: Program<'info, System>, } // from pseudo blog state #[account] pub struct BlogState { pub current_post_key: Pubkey, pub authority: Pubkey, }
As you know, every function needs a typed context as the first argument. Here we have defined InitBlog as a type of our init_blog ctx. In the ctx type we have to define the account and the account will be provided by the client(caller of the function).
In InitBlog there are 4 accounts:
  • blog_account
    • init attribute to create/initialize a new account
    • space = 8 + 32 + 32. Here, We are creating a new account, that's why we have to specify account size. We will see later how to calculate the account size.
    • payer = authority. authority is one of the accounts provided by the client. Authority is rent payer of blog_account.
  • genesis_post_account
    • We are also creating this account, that's why the init, payer, and space attributes are there
    • To create LinkedList we initialize the blog account with the very first post so, we can link it to the next post.
  • authority
    • program signer is a creator of the blog.
  • system_program
    • required by the runtime for creating the account.
With init_blog our plan is to initialize the blog account with current_post_key and authority as blog state so lets write code for that,
pub fn init_blog(ctx: Context<InitBlog>) -> ProgramResult { // get accounts from ctx let blog_account = &mut ctx.accounts.blog_account; let genesis_post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.genesis_post_account; let authority = &mut ctx.accounts.authority; // sets the blog state blog_account.authority = authority.key(); blog_account.current_post_key = genesis_post_account.key(); Ok(()) }
This how easy to create an account that holds some state data with the Anchor framework.
Now, We will move to the next function, what we can do next?? user, user signup. Let's define signup function with which users can create his or her profile by providing name and avatar as inputs.
pub fn signup_user(ctx: Context<SignupUser>) -> ProgramResult { Ok(()) }
That's the basic skeleton to create a new function but here is how we get the name and avatar from user?? Let's see.
pub fn signup_user(ctx: Context<SignupUser>, name: String, avatar: String) -> ProgramResult { Ok(()) }
We can accept any number of arguments after ctx like here name and avatar as String (Rust is a statically typed language, we have to define type while defining variables). Next is SignupUser ctx type and UserState state.
#[derive(Accounts)] pub struct SignupUser<'info> { #[account(init, payer = authority, space = 8 + 40 + 120 + 32)] pub user_account: Account<'info, UserState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, pub system_program: Program<'info, System>, } #[account] pub struct UserState { pub name: String, pub avatar: String, pub authority: Pubkey, }
Here, We need three accounts and you already understand in the previous function all the attributes(like init, payer, space) so, I won't re-explain that here. But I will explain to you how to calculate the account space this time. To measure account space we need to take a look at what state the account is holding. In user_account case UserState has 3 values to store name, avatar and authority.
State ValuesData TypesSize (in bytes)
authorityPubkey32
nameString40
avatarString120
Pubkey: Pubkey is always 32 bytes and String is variable in size so it depends on your use case.
String: String is an array of chars and each char takes 4 bytes in rust.
Account Discriminator: All accounts created with Anchor needs 8 bytes
Moving forward, Let's complete the remaining signup function
pub fn signup_user(ctx: Context<SignupUser>, name: String, avatar: String) -> ProgramResult { let user_account = &mut ctx.accounts.user_account; let authority = &mut ctx.accounts.authority; user_account.name = name; user_account.avatar = avatar; user_account.authority = authority.key(); Ok(()) }
Until now, We have created 2 function init_blog and signup_user with name and avatar. Specifically, signup_user takes two arguments. What if a user mistakenly sent the wrong name and the user wants to update it?? You guessed it right. We will create a function that allows the user to update name and avatar of their account.
pub fn update_user(ctx: Context<UpdateUser>, name: String, avatar: String) -> ProgramResult { let user_account = &mut ctx.accounts.user_account; user_account.name = name; user_account.avatar = avatar; Ok(()) } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct UpdateUser<'info> { #[account( mut, has_one = authority, )] pub user_account: Account<'info, UserState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, }
New attributes:
  • mut: if we want to change/update account state/data we must specify the mut attribute
  • has_one: has_one checks user_account.authority is equal to authority accounts key ie. owner of user_account is signer(caller) of update_user function
Our blog is initialized, a user is created, now what's remaining?? CRUD of the post. In the next section, We will look into the CRUD of the post entity. If you feel overwhelmed, take a break or go through what we have learned so far.
Now, Let's move to the CRUD of the post!! CRUD stands for Create Read Update Delete.
pub fn create_post(ctx: Context<CreatePost>, title: String, content: String) -> ProgramResult { Ok(()) } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct CreatePost<'info> { #[account(init, payer = authority, space = 8 + 50 + 500 + 32 + 32 + 32)] pub post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, #[account(mut, has_one = authority)] pub user_account: Account<'info, UserState>, #[account(mut)] pub blog_account: Account<'info, BlogState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, pub system_program: Program<'info, System>, } #[account] pub struct PostState { title: String, content: String, user: Pubkey, pub pre_post_key: Pubkey, pub authority: Pubkey, }
What do you think? Why do we need blog_account as mut here? Do you remember current_post_key field in BlogState. Let's look at the function body.
pub fn create_post(ctx: Context<CreatePost>, title: String, content: String) -> ProgramResult { let blog_account = &mut ctx.accounts.blog_account; let post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.post_account; let user_account = &mut ctx.accounts.user_account; let authority = &mut ctx.accounts.authority; post_account.title = title; post_account.content = content; post_account.user = user_account.key(); post_account.authority = authority.key(); post_account.pre_post_key = blog_account.current_post_key; // store created post id as current post id in blog account blog_account.current_post_key = post_account.key(); Ok(()) }
The post is created, Now we can let the client know that the post is created. The client can fetch the post and render it into the UI. Anchor provides a handy feature of emitting an event, Event?? Yup, you read it right. We can emit an event like post-created. Before emitting an event, We need to define it.
#[event] pub struct PostEvent { pub label: String, // label is like 'CREATE', 'UPDATE', 'DELETE' pub post_id: Pubkey, // created post pub next_post_id: Option<Pubkey>, // for now ignore this, we will use this when we emit delete event }
Let's emit a post created event from post_create function
pub fn create_post(ctx: Context<CreatePost>, title: String, content: String) -> ProgramResult { .... emit!(PostEvent { label: "CREATE".to_string(), post_id: post_account.key(), next_post_id: None // same as null }); Ok(()) }
Next, Update Post.
pub fn update_post(ctx: Context<UpdatePost>, title: String, content: String) -> ProgramResult { let post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.post_account; post_account.title = title; post_account.content = content; emit!(PostEvent { label: "UPDATE".to_string(), post_id: post_account.key(), next_post_id: None // null }); Ok(()) } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct UpdatePost<'info> { #[account( mut, has_one = authority, )] pub post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, }
Updating post is really simple, take title and content from user and update the mut post_account
Delete post is little challenging. To store posts, We have used LinkedList. If you know LinkedList, After deleting a node from LinkedList, we need to link the adjacent node of deleting a node. Let's understand this through a diagram.
If we want to delete 2nd post, we have to link 1 -> 3.
Let's jump to the code, I know you will understand it easily.
// Here, We need two post account, current_post and next_post account. we get pre_post of current_post from current_post and link it to next_post pub fn delete_post(ctx: Context<DeletePost>) -> ProgramResult { let post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.post_account; let next_post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.next_post_account; next_post_account.pre_post_key = post_account.pre_post_key; emit!(PostEvent { label: "DELETE".to_string(), post_id: post_account.key(), next_post_id: Some(next_post_account.key()) }); Ok(()) } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct DeletePost<'info> { #[account( mut, has_one = authority, close = authority, constraint = post_account.key() == next_post_account.pre_post_key )] pub post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, #[account(mut)] pub next_post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, }
constraint attribute performs simple if check.
So to delete a post, user needs to send post_account and next_post_account. But what if there is no next_post?? What if the user wants to delete the latest post that has no next post?? To handle this case, we need to create another function delete_latest_post
pub fn delete_latest_post(ctx: Context<DeleteLatestPost>) -> ProgramResult { let post_account = &mut ctx.accounts.post_account; let blog_account = &mut ctx.accounts.blog_account; blog_account.current_post_key = post_account.pre_post_key; emit!(PostEvent { label: "DELETE".to_string(), post_id: post_account.key(), next_post_id: None }); Ok(()) } #[derive(Accounts)] pub struct DeleteLatestPost<'info> { #[account( mut, has_one = authority, close = authority )] pub post_account: Account<'info, PostState>, #[account(mut)] pub blog_account: Account<'info, BlogState>, pub authority: Signer<'info>, }
That was the last function of our Rust Program.
Next is the Testing program. Don't worry, we'll fast forward to the next section.

Writing tests for blog program

Before we dive into writing test cases, every test needs an initialized blog, a brand new user, and a post. To avoid repetition, we will create 3 simple reusable utility functions.
  • createBlog - Initialize new Blog account
  • createUser - Create a new User
  • createPost - Create new Post
createBlog.js
const anchor = require("@project-serum/anchor"); const { SystemProgram } = anchor.web3; // we will discus the parameters when we use it async function createBlog(program, provider) { const blogAccount = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate(); // creates random keypair const genesisPostAccount = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate(); // creates random keypair await program.rpc.initBlog({ accounts: { authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, blogAccount: initBlogAccount.publicKey, genesisPostAccount: genesisPostAccount.publicKey, }, signers: [initBlogAccount, genesisPostAccount], }); const blog = await program.account.blogState.fetch(initBlogAccount.publicKey); return { blog, blogAccount, genesisPostAccount }; } module.exports = { createBlog, };
createUser.js
const anchor = require("@project-serum/anchor"); const { SystemProgram } = anchor.web3; async function createUser(program, provider) { const userAccount = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate(); const name = "user name"; const avatar = "https://img.link"; await program.rpc.signupUser(name, avatar, { accounts: { authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, userAccount: userAccount.publicKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, }, signers: [userAccount], }); const user = await program.account.userState.fetch(userAccount.publicKey); return { user, userAccount, name, avatar }; } module.exports = { createUser, };
createPost.js
const anchor = require("@project-serum/anchor"); const { SystemProgram } = anchor.web3; async function createPost(program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount) { const postAccount = anchor.web3.Keypair.generate(); const title = "post title"; const content = "post content"; await program.rpc.createPost(title, content, { // pass arguments to the program accounts: { blogAccount: blogAccount.publicKey, authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, userAccount: userAccount.publicKey, postAccount: postAccount.publicKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, }, signers: [postAccount], }); const post = await program.account.postState.fetch(postAccount.publicKey); return { post, postAccount, title, content }; } module.exports = { createPost, };
Now we are ready to write our first test case. Open up the test file located in /test/blog.js directory. We will write all the test cases inside the blog.js file.
const anchor = require("@project-serum/anchor"); const assert = require("assert"); describe("blog tests", () => { const provider = anchor.Provider.env(); anchor.setProvider(provider); const program = anchor.workspace.BlogSol; it("initialize blog account", async () => { // call the utility function const { blog, blogAccount, genesisPostAccount } = await createBlog( program, provider ); assert.equal( blog.currentPostKey.toString(), genesisPostAccount.publicKey.toString() ); assert.equal( blog.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); });
Next, run the test:
anchor test
After running anchor test you will see the 1/1 test passing.
Now we complete the remaining tests, we will write all the test cases below the previous test case inside blog.js file.
const anchor = require("@project-serum/anchor"); const assert = require("assert"); describe("blog tests", () => { const provider = anchor.Provider.env(); anchor.setProvider(provider); const program = anchor.workspace.BlogSol; it("initialize blog account", async () => { const { blog, blogAccount, genesisPostAccount } = await createBlog( program, provider ); assert.equal( blog.currentPostKey.toString(), genesisPostAccount.publicKey.toString() ); assert.equal( blog.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); it("signup a new user", async () => { const { user, name, avatar } = await createUser(program, provider); assert.equal(user.name, name); assert.equal(user.avatar, avatar); assert.equal( user.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); it("creates a new post", async () => { const { blog, blogAccount } = await createBlog(program, provider); const { userAccount } = await createUser(program, provider); const { title, post, content } = await createPost( program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount ); assert.equal(post.title, title); assert.equal(post.content, content); assert.equal(post.user.toString(), userAccount.publicKey.toString()); assert.equal(post.prePostKey.toString(), blog.currentPostKey.toString()); assert.equal( post.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); it("updates the post", async () => { const { blog, blogAccount } = await createBlog(program, provider); const { userAccount } = await createUser(program, provider); const { postAccount } = await createPost( program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount ); // now update the created post const updateTitle = "Updated Post title"; const updateContent = "Updated Post content"; const tx = await program.rpc.updatePost(updateTitle, updateContent, { accounts: { authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, postAccount: postAccount.publicKey, }, }); const post = await program.account.postState.fetch(postAccount.publicKey); assert.equal(post.title, updateTitle); assert.equal(post.content, updateContent); assert.equal(post.user.toString(), userAccount.publicKey.toString()); assert.equal(post.prePostKey.toString(), blog.currentPostKey.toString()); assert.equal( post.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); it("deletes the post", async () => { const { blogAccount } = await createBlog(program, provider); const { userAccount } = await createUser(program, provider); const { postAccount: postAcc1 } = await createPost( program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount ); const { post: post2, postAccount: postAcc2 } = await createPost( program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount ); const { post: post3, postAccount: postAcc3, title, content, } = await createPost(program, provider, blogAccount, userAccount); assert.equal(postAcc2.publicKey.toString(), post3.prePostKey.toString()); assert.equal(postAcc1.publicKey.toString(), post2.prePostKey.toString()); await program.rpc.deletePost({ accounts: { authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, postAccount: postAcc2.publicKey, nextPostAccount: postAcc3.publicKey, }, }); const upPost3 = await program.account.postState.fetch(postAcc3.publicKey); assert.equal(postAcc1.publicKey.toString(), upPost3.prePostKey.toString()); assert.equal(upPost3.title, title); assert.equal(upPost3.content, content); assert.equal(upPost3.user.toString(), userAccount.publicKey.toString()); assert.equal( upPost3.authority.toString(), provider.wallet.publicKey.toString() ); }); });
Run again:
anchor test

Building frontend

Now, We're ready to build out the front end. We will create a new react app inside the existing app directory.
cd app npx create-react-app .
The directory structure of a basic React app made with create-react-app:
ā”œā”€ā”€ public ā”œā”€ā”€ src | ā””ā”€ā”€ app.js ā”œā”€ā”€ package.json
Before we start writing the frontend part of the tutorial we will create a simple script that will copy the program idl file to the React app. Whenever we deploy our rust program with anchor deploy the Anchor CLI generates the idl file that has all the metadata related to our rust program (this metadata helps to build the client-side interface with the Rust program).
Create copy_idl.js file in the root of your project and copy the code given below. The code is just copying the idl file from /target/idl to the /app/src directory.
const fs = require("fs"); const blog_idl = require("./target/idl/blog_sol.json"); fs.writeFileSync("./app/src/idl.json", JSON.stringify(blog_idl, null, 2));
Next, install dependencies.
npm i @solana/wallet-adapter-react @solana/wallet-adapter-wallets @solana/web3.js
Next, open app/src/App.js and update it with the following:
import { ConnectionProvider, WalletProvider, } from "@solana/wallet-adapter-react"; import { getPhantomWallet } from "@solana/wallet-adapter-wallets"; import { Home } from "./home"; const wallets = [getPhantomWallet()]; const endPoint = "http://127.0.0.1:8899"; const App = () => { return ( <ConnectionProvider endpoint={endPoint}> <WalletProvider wallets={wallets} autoConnect> <Home /> </WalletProvider> </ConnectionProvider> ); }; export default App;
In the further tutorial, I'm just gonna explain the logical part of our dapp and I'll leave the styling part up to you.
Now, Let's start with the login functionality of our dapp. We will need a button that handles the user login with Phantom browser wallet.
create button inside Home.js component with onConnect onClick handler like this,
<button onClick={onConnect}>Connect with Phantom</button>
Then create onConnect function that handles the click event of connect button.
import { WalletName } from "@solana/wallet-adapter-wallets"; import { useWallet } from "@solana/wallet-adapter-react"; // inside react component const { select } = useWallet(); const onConnect = () => { select(WalletName.Phantom); };
Let's deploy our Rust program first then copy the idl file with the help of the copy_idl.js script that we wrote before,
Before deploy make sure you have localnet cluster set in Anchor.toml file. Now open up a new Terminal session and run the solana-test-validator command. This will start a local network of the Solana blockchain.
solana-test-validator
then deploy the program with,
anchor deploy
If you run into an error,
  • Make sure solana-test-validator is running
  • Make sure your Solana config is in a valid state (I mean the RPC url, KeyPair path etc.)
Once you successfully deploy the Rust program with the anchor CLI then run the copy_idl.js file like,
node copy_idl.js
It will copy the idl file to /app/src directory, now you will see the idl.json file inside /app/src directory.

Initialize Blog

Now we will initialize the blog. Initializing blog is one-time process. Let's create init_blog.js file inside the /app/src folder and copy the code given below.
import { Program } from "@project-serum/anchor"; import { Keypair, PublicKey, SystemProgram } from "@solana/web3.js"; import idl from "./idl.json"; const PROGRAM_KEY = new PublicKey(idl.metadata.address); export async function initBlog(walletKey, provider) { const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); const blogAccount = Keypair.generate(); const genesisPostAccount = Keypair.generate(); await program.rpc.initBlog({ accounts: { authority: walletKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, blogAccount: blogAccount.publicKey, genesisPostAccount: genesisPostAccount.publicKey, }, signers: [blogAccount, genesisPostAccount], }); console.log("Blog pubkey: ", blogAccount.publicKey.toString()); }
In this initBlog function we have imported the program idl then we have generated two Keypair for blog account and initial dummy post account and after that we just call the initBlog function of the program with all the necessary accounts. we are creating two new accounts here blogAccount and genesisPostAccount that's why we have to pass it as signers.
Now the UI part of this, we will create a temporary button to call the initBlog function. Once the blog is initialized we will remove the button, as it won't be needed anymore.
import { useAnchorWallet, useConnection } from "@solana/wallet-adapter-react"; import idl from './idl.json' const PROGRAM_KEY = new PublicKey(idl.metadata.address); const BLOG_KEY = /* new PublicKey(blog key) */; // inside react component const { connection } = useConnection(); const wallet = useAnchorWallet(); const _initBlog = () => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); initBlog(provider.wallet.publicKey, provider); }; <button onClick={_initBlog}>Init blog</button>
The initBlog function will create a brand new Blog and console log its publicKey. Make sure you still have solana-test-validator running in another terminal and your Phantom wallet is connected to the local network (http://localhost:8899)
If you don't know how to connect the Phantom wallet to Localnet here are the steps,
  • Go to settings tab in Phantom wallet
  • Scroll down and select change network
  • Finally choose Localhost
Next, you need balance in your account on Localnet to get balance you need to run the following command.
solana airdrop 1 <your-account-address>
Then check your account balance with the command:
solana balance <your-account-address>
You will see 1 SOL printed on your terminal.
Once you are connected to the Localhost you are ready to initialize the blog account. Run the app with npm run start it will open up your Dapp in your browser there you will see two buttons one is connect and another one is init blog. The first step is to connect to the Phantom wallet by clicking connect button. Once you are connected then click on the init blog button. it will trigger the Phantom wallet confirmation popup click Approve. After 1 to 2 sec the initBlog function will console log the publicKey of your blog account, just copy the blog publicKey and store it in BLOG_KEY variable and that's it. We have successfully initialized our blog account.
const BLOG_KEY = new PublicKey(your - blog - key);
Your blog is initialized now you can comment out the init blog button as well the _initBlog function.

Signup user

Now we will move to the part where the user enters his/her name and avatar URL and we will initialize his/her account.
Let's create two input fields one for user name and another for user avatar.
<input placeholder="user name" /> <input placeholder="user avatar" />
Next attach React state to the input fields and create signup button
const [name, setName] = useState("") const [avatar, setAvatar] = useState("") const _signup = ()=> { } <input placeholder="user name" value={name} onChange={e => setName(e.target.value)} /> <input placeholder="user avatar" value={avatar} onChange={e => setAvatar(e.target.value)} /> <button onClick={_signup}>Signup</button>
Now we will write the functionality of the _signup function, If you remember the initBlog function, there we have randomly generated Keypair but in this case, we won't generate the Keypair randomly as we need to identify the user for all the subsequent logins.
Keypair has fromSeed function that takes a seed argument and generates a unique Keypair from the given seed.
So we will create a seed by combining PROGRAM_KEY and users wallet_key so it will create a unique Keypair.
import { Keypair, PublicKey, SystemProgram } from "@solana/web3.js"; import { Program, Provider } from "@project-serum/anchor"; const genUserKey = (PROGRAM_KEY, walletKey) => { const userAccount = Keypair.fromSeed( new TextEncoder().encode( `${PROGRAM_KEY.toString().slice(0, 15)}__${walletKey .toString() .slice(0, 15)}` ) ); return userAccount; };
Let's complete the _signup function,
const _signup = async () => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); const userAccount = genUserKey(PROGRAM_KEY, provider.wallet.publicKey); await program.rpc.signupUser(name, avatar, { accounts: { authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, userAccount: userAccount.publicKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, }, signers: [userAccount], }); };
Now we have created user account next we will fetch the user account to see whether user has already signed up.
import { useEffect, useState } from "react"; // inside react component const fetchUser = async () => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); const userAccount = genUserKey(PROGRAM_KEY, provider.wallet.publicKey); const _user = await program.account.userState.fetch(userAccount.publicKey); return _user; }; const [user, setUser] = useState(); // fetch user when wallet is connected useEffect(() => { if (wallet?.publicKey) { fetchUser() .then((user) => { setUser(user); }) .catch((e) => console.log(e)); } }, [wallet]); // if the user is not undefined then show user name and user avatar in UI // otherwise show signup form to the user { user ? ( <> <h1>user name: {user.name}</h1> <h1>user avatar: {user.avatar} </h1> </> ) : ( <> <input placeholder="user name" value={name} onChange={(e) => setName(e.target.value)} /> <input placeholder="user avatar" value={avatar} onChange={(e) => setAvatar(e.target.value)} /> <button onClick={_signup}>Signup</button>{" "} </> ); }

Create post

First we will create a form to take post title and post content from user input.
const [title, setTitle] = useState(""); const [content, setContent] = useState(""); const _createPost = async ()=> { } <input placeholder="post title" value={title} onChange={(e) => setTitle(e.target.value)} /> <input placeholder="post content" value={content} onChange={(e) => setContent(e.target.value)} /> <button onClick={_createPost}>Create post</button>
Now we can complete the _createPost function
const _createPost = async () => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); const postAccount = Keypair.generate(); const userAccount = genUserKey(PROGRAM_KEY, provider.wallet.publicKey); await program.rpc.createPost(title, content, { accounts: { blogAccount: BLOG_KEY, authority: provider.wallet.publicKey, userAccount: userAccount.publicKey, postAccount: postAccount.publicKey, systemProgram: SystemProgram.programId, }, signers: [postAccount], }); };
here we have passed the BLOG_KEY the same key that we have obtained by initializing the blog.
Now we will fetch all the posts created on our Blog. If you remember the Rust program, we have attached the previous post id to the current post, here we will use the previous post id to iterate over the list of posts. To do so, we will create a function that finds the post of a given post id.
const getPostById = async (postId) => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); try { const post = await program.account.postState.fetch(new PublicKey(postId)); const userId = post.user.toString(); if (userId === SystemProgram.programId.toString()) { return; } return { id: postId, title: post.title, content: post.content, userId, prePostId: post.prePostKey.toString(), }; } catch (e) { console.log(e.message); } };
To loop over all the posts we need latest post id and we can find the latest post id from the blog state. create fetchAllPosts function as,
const fetchAllPosts = async () => { const provider = new Provider(connection, wallet, {}); const program = new Program(idl, PROGRAM_KEY, provider); // read the blog state const blog = await program.account.blogState.fetch(BLOG_KEY); const latestPostId = blog.currentPostKey.toString(); const posts = []; let nextPostId = latestPostId; while (!!nextPostId) { const post = await getPostById(nextPostId, program); if (!post) { break; } posts.push(post); nextPostId = post.prePostId; } return posts; };
Now trigger the fetchAllPosts function when the user login with the Phantom wallet.
const [posts, setPosts] = useState([]); // fetch all the posts when wallet is connected useEffect(() => { if (wallet?.publicKey) { fetchAllPosts() .then((posts) => { setPosts(posts); }) .catch((e) => console.log(e)); } }, [wallet]);
Show posts in the UI
{ posts.map(({ title, content }, i) => { return ( <div key={i}> <h2>{title}</h2> <p>{content}</p> </div> ); }); }

Todo

Till now, we have integrated initialization of blog, user signup, fetch user, create post, fetch all the posts there still some part is remaining like,
  • update user
  • update post
  • delete post
If you follow the same steps as we have learned, you can be able to complete the remaining to-do tasks.

Deploying to Devnet

Deploying to a live network is straightforward:
  1. Set Solana config to devnet
solana config set --url devnet
  1. Open Anchor.toml and Update the cluster to devnet
cluster = "devnet"
  1. Build program
anchor build
  1. Deploy program
anchor deploy

Conclusion

Congratulations on finishing the tutorial. In this tutorial, We have successfully created a Rust program for Blog post Dapp on Solana Blockchain. We have also integrated the Blog post Rust program with React.js on the client side. Here, we followed a little different approach to storing and retrieving posts. The Solana blockchain is still in its beta phase so, don't bother to try experimenting. Who knows, you might find some cool patterns out of it.
There is still room for improvements in the Blog Dapp like,
  • UI improvements
  • Creating frontend app with Typescript
  • Adding pagination while fetching all the posts
  • Creating user timeline(posts created by the user)
  • Adding Rxjs to fetch posts(streaming posts)

About Author

This tutorial was created by Kiran Bhalerao. For any suggestions/questions, you can connect with author on Figment Forum.

References

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