Create a To-Do dApp with Flutter

Learn how to create a universal To-Do dApp with the Flutter framework and deploy it on Polygon.
TruffleSolidity1.5 hours
Written by Viral Sangani


In this tutorial, we will learn how to perform CRUD (Create, Read, Update and Delete) operations in a Flutter Dapp on the Polygon network by creating a To-do app.
This is what the dApp we will be creating looks like:
App Demo


To successfully follow along with this tutorial, you will need basic knowledge and understanding of Blockchain technology, the Solidity programming language for smart contracts, and the Flutter framework.


  • Truffle - Truffle provides a local development environment for creating and testing blockchain applications.
  • Flutter - used to create an Android/iOS dApp.
  • A code editor or IDE - VSCode is recommended for Flutter development.
  • Figment DataHub account - We will be using DataHub's Polygon RPC URL to deploy the smart contract.
If you don't have a DataHub account, you can create a free account and get the API key for Polygon from the dashboard.
We will be using web3dart to interact with the blockchain in our Flutter application. web3dart is an alternative to the commonly used web3js for the Flutter ecosystem.

Project Setup

Run the following commands to install the packages and create the project directories:
flutter create todo_dapp cd todo_dapp mkdir smartcontract cd smartcontract npm install -g truffle truffle init
The command npm install -g truffle will install Truffle globally so that you can use Truffle from any directory.
This is how the folder structure will be after initial setup:
Folder Structure
The truffle init command creates the following directories:
  • contracts: All the smart contracts are stored in this directory.
  • migrations: All the scripts used by Truffle to deploy smart contracts are stored in this directory.
  • test: All the test scripts for smart contracts are stored in this directory.
  • truffle-config.js: Contains configuration settings for Truffle.

Creating the smart contract

Create a new file called TodoContract.sol in the contracts directory and add the following code:
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-3.0 pragma solidity ^0.8.6; contract TodoContract { uint256 public taskCount = 0; struct Task { uint256 index; string taskName; bool isComplete; } mapping(uint256 => Task) public todos; event TaskCreated(string task, uint256 taskNumber); event TaskUpdated(string task, uint256 taskId); event TaskIsCompleteToggled(string task, uint256 taskId, bool isComplete); event TaskDeleted(uint256 taskNumber); }
  • taskCount is an unsigned public integer that stores the total number of to-do items in the smart contract.
  • struct Task is a data structure to store information (metadata) about each to-do. This includes the id of the to-do, taskName, and isComplete boolean value for the to-do.
  • mapping(uint256 => Task) public todos; is a mapping that stores all the to-dos, where the key is the id and value is the Task struct.
  • TaskCreated, TaskUpdated, TaskIsCompleteToggled, and TaskDeleted are the events emitted on the blockchain that our dApp can listen for and function accordingly.
function createTask(string memory _taskName) public { todos[taskCount] = Task(taskCount, _taskName, false); taskCount++; emit TaskCreated(_taskName, taskCount - 1); }
  • The createTask function will accept the _taskName for the to-do. We can create a new Task struct with taskCount and _taskName, and assign it to the current taskCount value in the todos map.
  • Increment taskCount's value by one for the next to-do.
  • Once everything is done, we have to emit the TaskCreated event.
function updateTask(uint256 _taskId, string memory _taskName) public { Task memory currTask = todos[_taskId]; todos[_taskId] = Task(_taskId, _taskName, currTask.isComplete); emit TaskUpdated(_taskName, _taskId); }
  • The updateTask function accepts a _taskId of a to-do to be updated along with an updated taskName. We can create a new Task struct with these values and assign it to the todos map corresponding to the _taskId received.
  • Note that while updating, we have to retain the isComplete value of that to-do. First, fetch the current task from the map, then store it in a variable, then use its isComplete value for the new Task object.
  • Once everything is done, we have to emit the TaskUpdated event.
function deleteTask(uint256 _taskId) public { delete todos[_taskId]; emit TaskDeleted(_taskId); }
  • deleteTask accepts _task of the to-do to be deleted as the parameter. First, remove the Task object from the todos map corresponding to the _task received, then emit the TaskDeleted event.
function toggleComplete(uint256 _taskId) public { Task memory currTask = todos[_taskId]; todos[_taskId] = Task(_taskId, currTask.taskName, !currTask.isComplete); emit TaskIsCompleteToggle( currTask.taskName, _taskId, !currTask.isComplete ); }
  • toggleComplete function accepts _taskId of to-do to be updated. We first fetch the Task object from the todos map and then create a new Task object with those values, with isComplete set as the opposite of the current isComplete value.
That's all for the smart contract, and now we can move forward with the compilation and migration process.

Compiling and deploying with Truffle

Now that we have our smart contract written, it's time to compile it. Open your terminal in the smartcontract directory and run the following command:
truffle compile
Truffle will compile the smart contract, and you should see the output similar to:
Truffle Compile
For the migration of our contact to the blockchain, go to the migrations directory, create a new file called 2_todo_contract_migration.js and add the following code:
const TodoContract = artifacts.require("TodoContract"); module.exports = function (deployer) { deployer.deploy(TodoContract); };
  • Before starting with the migration process, make sure you have Ganache installed. Start the Ganache GUI app in your system.
  • Delete all the existing contents of truffle-config.js and replace it with the code below.
module.exports = { networks: { development: { host: "localhost", port: 7545, network_id: "*", }, }, contracts_directory: "./contracts", compilers: { solc: { optimizer: { enabled: true, runs: 200, }, }, }, db: { enabled: false, }, };
  • In truffle-config.js, we are defining the basic configuration for Truffle. Currently, we will be deploying the smart contract to localhost:7545 where our Ganache blockchain is running.
  • To deploy the smart contract on Ganache, run the command:
truffle migrate
This will deploy the contract to the Ganache development blockchain and will give you output that looks similar to this:
Contract Migration

Connecting to a Flutter application with web3dart

The smart contract is created and deployed; we can start integrating it with our Flutter application.
Open the pubspec.yaml file and add the following dependencies:
dependencies: # Needed for smart contract interaction http: ^0.13.3 web3dart: ^2.1.4 web_socket_channel: ^2.1.0 provider: ^5.0.0
Add TodoContract.json file as an asset in pubspec.yaml, generated by the truffle compile command.
assets: - smartcontract/build/contracts/TodoContract.json
To get started with UI and data controllers, we will have to create three files in the lib directory.
  • TodoListModel.dart - Contains data model, contract functions and notifier class to update UI.
  • TodoList.dart - Contains the main UI of our app.
  • TodoBottomSheet.dart - Contains create and update todo form.
import 'dart:convert'; import 'dart:core'; import 'package:flutter/material.dart'; import 'package:flutter/services.dart'; import 'package:http/http.dart'; import 'package:web3dart/web3dart.dart'; import 'package:web_socket_channel/io.dart'; class TodoListModel extends ChangeNotifier { List<Task> todos = []; bool isLoading = true; int taskCount; final String _rpcUrl = ""; final String _wsUrl = "ws://"; final String _privateKey = "f9af969c5294cb200d7f97d9b178937c96d36b0697639f71285224..."; Web3Client _client; String _abiCode; Credentials _credentials; EthereumAddress _contractAddress; EthereumAddress _ownAddress; DeployedContract _contract; ContractFunction _taskCount; ContractFunction _todos; ContractFunction _createTask; ContractFunction _updateTask; ContractFunction _deleteTask; ContractFunction _toggleComplete; }
  • On top, we are importing all the required packages.
  • Creating a class TodoListModel extending from ChangeNotifier class from Provider package.
  • Setting Ganache's _rpcUrl and _wsUrl for the local environment.
  • Setting the private key of any account from Ganache (you can get this by clicking on the Key icon in the Ganache UI).
Ganache Private Key
Web3Client _client is used to connect to the Polygon blockchain with WebSockets. String _abiCode is used to store the ABI of our smart contract. Credentials _credentials contains the Credential object of the logged-in user. EthereumAddress _ownAddress is used to store the public key of the logged-in user. DeployedContract _contract is an instance of our smart contract, which will be eventually used to communicate with the smart contract. _taskCount, _todos, _createTask, _updateTask, _deleteTask and _toggleComplete are the functions of our deployed smart contract.
After all the variable declarations, add the following functions in the TodoListModel class :
TodoListModel() { init(); } Future<void> init() async { _client = Web3Client(_rpcUrl, Client(), socketConnector: () { return IOWebSocketChannel.connect(_wsUrl).cast<String>(); }); await getAbi(); await getCredentials(); await getDeployedContract(); } Future<void> getAbi() async { String abiStringFile = await rootBundle .loadString("smartcontract/build/contracts/TodoContract.json"); var jsonAbi = jsonDecode(abiStringFile); _abiCode = jsonEncode(jsonAbi["abi"]); _contractAddress = EthereumAddress.fromHex(jsonAbi["networks"]["5777"]["address"]); } Future<void> getCredentials() async { _credentials = await _client.credentialsFromPrivateKey(_privateKey); _ownAddress = await _credentials.extractAddress(); } Future<void> getDeployedContract() async { _contract = DeployedContract( ContractAbi.fromJson(_abiCode, "TodoList"), _contractAddress); _taskCount = _contract.function("taskCount"); _updateTask = _contract.function("updateTask"); _createTask = _contract.function("createTask"); _deleteTask = _contract.function("deleteTask"); _toggleComplete = _contract.function("toggleComplete"); _todos = _contract.function("todos"); await getTodos(); }
In the constructor of the TodoListModel class, we are calling the asynchronous init function. init function contains the initialization of _client object followed by calling getAbi, getCredentials and getDeployedContract functions.
In the getAbi function, we are fetching the ABI of our smart contract and extracting the address of deployed contract. In the getCredentials function, we create an instance of the Credentials class by passing in our private key.
Note - It's recommended to store the private key in encrypted form in Flutter. For the simplicity of this tutorial, we are keeping the private key in a string format.
In the getCredentials function, we will create an instance of our smart contract using _abiCode and _contractAddress. Once we have a contract instance, we can create an instance of all the functions we have in the smart contract, as shown above in the code.
Now that we have initialized all our variables, it's time to implement CRUD operations. In the TodoListModel add following functions:
getTodos() async { List totalTaskList = await _contract, function: _taskCount, params: []); BigInt totalTask = totalTaskList[0]; taskCount = totalTask.toInt(); todos.clear(); for (var i = 0; i < totalTask.toInt(); i++) { var temp = await _contract, function: _todos, params: [BigInt.from(i)]); if (temp[1] != "") todos.add( Task( id: (temp[0] as BigInt).toInt(), taskName: temp[1], isCompleted: temp[2], ), ); } isLoading = false; todos = todos.reversed.toList(); notifyListeners(); } addTask(String taskNameData) async { isLoading = true; notifyListeners(); await _client.sendTransaction( _credentials, Transaction.callContract( contract: _contract, function: _createTask, parameters: [taskNameData], ), ); await getTodos(); } updateTask(int id, String taskNameData) async { isLoading = true; notifyListeners(); await _client.sendTransaction( _credentials, Transaction.callContract( contract: _contract, function: _updateTask, parameters: [BigInt.from(id), taskNameData], ), ); await getTodos(); } deleteTask(int id) async { isLoading = true; notifyListeners(); await _client.sendTransaction( _credentials, Transaction.callContract( contract: _contract, function: _deleteTask, parameters: [BigInt.from(id)], ), ); await getTodos(); } toggleComplete(int id) async { isLoading = true; notifyListeners(); await _client.sendTransaction( _credentials, Transaction.callContract( contract: _contract, function: _toggleComplete, parameters: [BigInt.from(id)], ), ); await getTodos(); }
In getTodos, we call the _taskCount function which gives us the total number of to-dos, and then we use a loop to fetch all to-do items and add them to a list. Once we have all the to-dos, we can set isLoading to false and call notifyListeners from the Provider package to update our UI.
In addTask, we accept the task name as a parameter, set isLoading to true, and then call the _createTask function using _contract object and passing taskNameData as a parameter. updateTask accepts the id of the task and the updated taskNameData to make a transaction using our credentials to the smart contract. Notice that we are sending id as an instance of BigInt because the web3dart package requires all the numbers in BigInt format. The deleteTask function will accept the id of the task to be deleted and call the _deleteTask function of our contract to delete that particular task from the todos mapping in the smart contract.
The toggleComplete function will accept the id of a task, and it will toggle the value of the isComplete boolean value in our smart contract. At the end of the addTask, updateTask, deleteTask, and toggleComplete function we are calling getTodos to fetch the updated list of todos to update the UI. Alternatively, you can also update the local to-do list before calling the smart contract function to show the result instantaneously and update the list in the background.
Create a Task model class in TodoListModel to store the list of to-dos.
class Task { final int id; final String taskName; final bool isCompleted; Task({, this.taskName, this.isCompleted}); }
Now that we are done with the logic part in Flutter let's move forward and create the UI for our app.
class TodoList extends StatelessWidget { const TodoList({Key key}) : super(key: key); Widget build(BuildContext context) { var listModel = Provider.of<TodoListModel>(context, listen: true); return Scaffold( appBar: AppBar( title: Text("Dapp Todo"), ), floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton( onPressed: () { showTodoBottomSheet(context); }, child: Icon(Icons.add), ), body: listModel.isLoading ? Center(child: CircularProgressIndicator()) : Column( children: [ SizedBox(height: 16), Expanded( child: ListView.builder( itemCount: listModel.todos.length, itemBuilder: (context, index) => ListTile( title: InkWell( onTap: () { showTodoBottomSheet( context, task: listModel.todos[index], ); }, child: Container( margin: EdgeInsets.symmetric( vertical: 2, horizontal: 12, ), padding: EdgeInsets.all(4), decoration: BoxDecoration( color: Colors.grey[300], borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(20), ), child: Row( children: [ Checkbox( value: listModel.todos[index].isCompleted, onChanged: (val) { listModel.toggleComplete( listModel.todos[index].id); }, ), Text(listModel.todos[index].taskName), ], ), ), ), ), ), ), ], ), ); } }
Here we are creating a stateless widget, TodoList. In the build function, we are listening to TodoListModel and rendering the UI accordingly. If the isLoading form TodoListModel is true, we are rendering the Loading widget; else, we are creating a ListView and looping over the length of todos in TodoListModel. In the ListView, we return a checkbox to toggle the isComplete value of the to-do and a container with the task name. We are also creating a floating action button to add a new task to the to-do list.
  • This is how our list of to-dos should look:
Todo List
showTodoBottomSheet(BuildContext context, {Task task}) { TextEditingController _titleController = TextEditingController(text: task?.taskName ?? ""); var listModel = Provider.of<TodoListModel>(context, listen: false); return showModalBottomSheet<void>( shape: RoundedRectangleBorder(borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(20)), context: context, builder: (BuildContext context) { return Container( padding: EdgeInsets.only(top: 10), margin: EdgeInsets.all(10), height: 300, child: SingleChildScrollView( child: Column( children: [ Container( height: 6, width: 80, decoration: BoxDecoration( color: Colors.grey, borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(20), ), ), SizedBox(height: 18), TextField( controller: _titleController, decoration: const InputDecoration( border: OutlineInputBorder( borderRadius: BorderRadius.all(Radius.circular(20)), ), contentPadding: const EdgeInsets.only( left: 14.0, bottom: 20.0, top: 20.0, ), hintText: 'Enter a search term', hintStyle: TextStyle( fontSize: 20, ), ), style: TextStyle( fontSize: 20, ), ), SizedBox(height: 12), if (task == null) buildButton("Created", () { listModel.addTask(_titleController.text); Navigator.pop(context); }), if (task != null) buildButton("Updated", () { listModel.updateTask(, _titleController.text); Navigator.pop(context); }), if (task != null) buildButton("Delete", () { listModel.deleteTask(; Navigator.pop(context); }), ], ), ), ); }, ); } TextButton buildButton(String text, Function onPressed) { return TextButton( onPressed: onPressed, child: Container( child: Center( child: Text( text, style: TextStyle( color: Colors.white, fontSize: 20, ), ), ), height: 50, padding: EdgeInsets.symmetric(vertical: 10), width: double.infinity, decoration: BoxDecoration( color: text == "Delete" ? :, borderRadius: BorderRadius.circular(15), ), ), ); }
We are creating two functions, showTodoBottomSheet and buildButton. showTodoBottomSheet shows a bottom sheet where users can create, update and delete a task, and buildButton is a typical widget that returns a specifically designed button.
In showTodoBottomSheet, we are accepting an optional parameter task, and based on the value of task, we are rendering the bottom sheet UI. If the value of task is null, we are rending UI to create a new Todo task, and if the task is not null, we will render the update and delete UI. When the user taps on the floating action button, then we will call showTodoBottomSheet with task value as null, and when the user taps on and task item from ListView, we are calling showTodoBottomSheet with task value being the task object user tapped on.
When Create, Update, and Delete buttons are pressed, we call the respective smart contract function from our TodoListModel class.
This is how the bottom sheet should look:
Bottom sheet GIF
The last remaining part is calling the TodoList widget from main.dart to render our app.
void main() { runApp(MyApp()); } class MyApp extends StatelessWidget { Widget build(BuildContext context) { return ChangeNotifierProvider( create: (context) => TodoListModel(), child: MaterialApp( title: 'Flutter TODO', home: TodoList(), ), ); } }

Publishing the smart contract to Mumbai testnet

We can publish our smart contract to Polygon Mumbai testnet by adding provider details of testnet in truffle-config.js.
  • Connect your Metamask to Matic Mumbai testnet and get the Secret Recovery Phrase from the Metamask.
  • Create a .secret file in the smartcontract directory and paste your Secret Recovery Phrase in that file. Make sure you have added the .secret file in your .gitignore.
  • NOTE - Deploying a smart contract requires paying gas fees, but since we are deploying to testnet, you can get 0.1 Matic token from [Matic Faucet](Matic Faucet) in your account.
Run the following command to install hdwallet-provider to pay gas fees via your account.
npm install @truffle/hdwallet-provider
Once you have everything set up correctly, delete the content of truffle-config.js and add the following code.
const HDWalletProvider = require("@truffle/hdwallet-provider"); const fs = require("fs"); const mnemonic = fs.readFileSync(".secret").toString().trim(); var DATAHUB_API_KEY = "YOU-DATAHUB-API-KEY-FOR-POLYGON"; module.exports = { networks: { development: { host: "localhost", port: 7545, network_id: "*", }, matic: { provider: () => new HDWalletProvider({ mnemonic: { phrase: mnemonic, }, providerOrUrl: `${DATAHUB_API_KEY}/`, chainId: 80001, }), network_id: 80001, confirmations: 2, timeoutBlocks: 200, skipDryRun: true, chainId: 80001, }, }, contracts_directory: "./contracts", compilers: { solc: { optimizer: { enabled: true, runs: 200, }, }, }, db: { enabled: false, }, };
After modifying truffle-config.js, run the following command to deploy your smart contract on Polygon testnet.
truffle migrate --network matic
Truffle will deploy the contract to Mumbai using your account from Metamask.
You can find the complete source code of this project on Github.


Congratulations on finishing the tutorial! Thank you for taking the time to complete it. In this tutorial, you have learned how to create a Flutter dApp from scratch using web3dart. Since Flutter is a multi-platform framework and the web3dart package supports all the platforms - Android, iOS, Linux, macOS, Web, and Windows you can use the same codebase to build multi-platform dApps very quickly.

About the Author

I'm Viral Sangani, a tech enthusiast working on blockchain projects & love the Web3 community. Feel free to connect with me on Github.
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